ATAP LENGKUNG ZINCALUME

Oktober 3, 2012

Bahan Galvalume atau Zincalume adalah Lapisan Galvanis Campuran Seng dan Aluminium

Penggunaan  seng  (zinc)  untuk  kebutuhan bahan atap dan dinding,  nampaknya   sudah  cukup  membudaya  di masyarakat.   Seiring   dengan kemajuan   di   bidang teknologi,  material   ini   terus  mengalami   inovasi   dan peningkatan,   baik   dari   segi   kualitas   maupun estetikanya.
Dengan   cara  mencampur   antara  material   seng   dan aliminium, baik dengan warna, akan diperoleh material yang berdaya tahan tinggi  dan semakin artistik dalam penampilannya.

Aplikasi campuran kedua material tersebut, kini banyak digunakan pada produk galvalume metal  coated steel, yaitu  lembaran baja yang dilapisi   lembaran baja yang dilapisi  campuran seng, aluminium dan silicon, dengan komposisi : 43,5 persen zainc, 55 persen aluminium dan
1,5 persen silicon. Berdasarkan   pengalaman   penggunaan   di   lapangan, campuran   material   pelapis   tersebut,   ternyata memberikan   hasil   yang   lebih   baik   dan   memiliki ketahanan   terhadap   korosi   atmosferik   2-6   kali   lebih andal,   dibandingkan   dengan   baja   lapis   seng   biasa galvanis,   yang   tingkat   ketahannya   sangat   tergantung pada kondisi lingkungannya.

Dari  hasil pengujian   di  udara   terbuka,   yang  dilakukan mulai  dari  daerah hunian  typical    hingga  daerah  tepi pantai  dengan tingkat kelembaban yang tinggi, pelapis galvalume  selain  mampu  memberikan   ketahanan  dan perlindungan   galvanis   yang   optimum,   juga   dapat menampilkan   kombinasi   dari   ketahanan   lapisan aluminium dan  sacrifical protection dari seng.
Galvalume,   juga   mampu   memberikan   perlindungan galvanis pada bagian tepi  baja dasarnya. Perlindungan ini   terjadi,   seperti mekanisme   serupa  pada  pelapisan baja galvanis biasa.  Hal  ini  pernah dilakukan uji  coba, yakni  dengan cara menghilangkan logam  lapis lindung pada   permukaan   baja   lapis   Zincalume   dan   galvanis. Sehingga,  nampak  permukaan baja  dasarnya,  dengan berbagai  ukuran  lebar   :  0.40 mm,  0.60 mm,  1.0 mm, 2.0 mm dan 4.0 mm. dari hasil uji coba pada lingkungan atmosferik,   maka   perbedaan   daya   proteksi   pada material tersebut, hampir tidak ada.

Hal   ini  menunjukkan   bahwa  Zinculame  memiliki   sifat proteksi   panas   yang   lebih   baik,   khususnya   sebagai bahan   atap.   Dalam   penggunaannya,   baja   lapis Zincalume   ini   diklasifikasikan   berdasarkan   berat minimum pelapisan. Terdapat  beberapa  kelas,  antara   lain  :  Zincalume  AZ 150 dan AZ 200.  Zincalume  AZ 150,  merupakan baja lapis Zincalume yang memiliki  daya tahan dan aplikasi pengunaan yang berbeda. Penanganan dalam penggunaan Karakteristik  baja   lapis  Zincalume,   yang  berhubungan dengan   barang   jadi   atau   material lainnya,   hampir serupa   dengan   baja   lapis   seng   (galvanis).   Produk-produk timah yang dapat merangsang timbulnya karat, seperti   :  paku berkepala   timah atau    flashing  timah, sebaiknya   tidak   dipergunakan  untuk   aplikasi  material tersebut, kecuali, dilapisi dengan bitumen atau cat yang berkualitas. Untuk mencegah terjadinya kerusakan pada permukaan material   ini,   diperlukan   penanganan   secara   benar, mulai   dari   penyimpanan   hingga   penggunaan   di lapangan. Pada  saat  penyimpanan,  dianjurkan material   ini   tidak menempel   secara   langsung   pada   tanah   atau   lantai. Namun,  harus diberikan jarak antara keduanya.  Selain itu,  dalam penyimpanannya ini  perlu juga diupayakan, untuk   mencegah   terperangkapnya   air   ataupun terjadinua   kondensasi   antar   permukaan   lembaran.
Apabila   terjadi   lembaran   yang   basah   harus   segera dipisahkan, langsung dilap dan dipindahkan pada suatu tempat dengan sirkulasi udara yang cukup. Kontak   langsung antara  bagian permukaan baja   lapis Zincalume   dengan   material   lain,   yang   terbuat   dari bahan   dasar   besi   atau   tembaga   juga   perlu   dicegah, khususnya   pada   kondisi  udara   yang   lembab.  Hal   ini untuk   menghindarkan   terjadinya    gesekan   yang menyebabkan korosi  pada  permukaan  lembaran panel tersebut. Baja   lapis   Zincalume   ini,   sebenarnya   memiliki   sifat
pencegahan noda   yang   cukup  bagus.  Karena,  dilapisi dengan resin yang mampu menvegah timbulnya noda, akibat tangan berkeringat, udara yang lembab maupun bekas injakan kaki selama pemasangan.

Baja   lapis   Zinculame,   diproduksi   melalui   proses pencelupan   panas   yang   dilakukan   secara   kontinyu. Bahan   baku   utama   yang   berupa   lebaran   baja   dalam gulungan, diurai  dan dipadukan dalam suatu peralatan welding.   Melalui   entry   accumulator,     lembaran   baja tersebut   masuk   ke   dalam   tungku   pembakaran   dan keluar menuju tempat pelapisan (coating pot). Selanjutnya,  dilakukan proses  pendinginan awal  melalui  leg  cooler  dan masuk  menuju proses  pendinginan selanjutnya,   yakni   pada   horizontal   cooler.   Proses pendinginan   ini,   masih   dilanjutkan   lagi   pada   water quench, yaitu pendinginan dengan menggunakan air. Setelah dilakukan pendinginan, material tersebut masuk ke  proses   skin-pass  mill  untuk  perlakuan  permukaan.
Selanjutnya, berturut-turut mengalami proses perlakuan pada   tension   leveller,   chemical   treatment,   organic passivation dan  keluar  menjadi  baja   lapis  Zincalume. Sebagai   proses   finishing,   lembaran   bahan   tersebut dikemas   dalam   bentuk   gulungan   (coil)   dan   siap
digunakan untuk pembuatan berbagai produk. Dengan   proses   pencelupan   panas   tersebut,   selain memiliki  spangle    yang menarik  pada  permukaannya, baja  lapis Zincalume  juga  lebih mudah dibentuk,  dilas dan   dicat.   Sehingga,   dalam  aplikasi   penggunaannya, material   ini  cocok  dipakai  untuk  bahan atap,  dinding, talang,   pagar,   rangka   rumah,   knalpot   kendaraan, saluran   asap   atau   udara   dan   aplikasi   lainnya,   yang memerlukan daya tahan yang tinggi. Selain   itu,   dalam   penggunaanya,   material   ini   juga mampu memantulkan sebagian besar  panas dan sinar matahari.   Sehingga,   sangat   efektif   dipergunakan sebagai pelindung panas (thermal). Dari hasil pengujian dari   beberapa   bahan,   terhadap   penyebaran   atau transmisi  panas  di  bawah atap,  baja,   lapis  Zincalume menunjukkan   angka   sebesar   65   h/watt/m2,   galvanis 120 h/watt/m2 dan asbestos cement 150 h/watt/m2.

Namun   apabila   diperlukan,   dalam   penggunaannya dapat   dilakukan   pengecatan.   Sebelum   dilakukan pengecatan atau pelapisan denga bitumen, permukaan harus   dibersihkan   dan   dikeringkan   terlebih   dahulu. Debu   atau   kotoran   yang  menempel  pada  permukaan
dapat  dibersihkan dengan air,  endapan minyak  dapat dilap   dengan   tiner,   sedangkan   apabila   terjadi   karat harus dibersihkan dengan kawat halus. Dalam  penggunaannya   sebagai   atap   atau   talang   air, untuk   memperoleh   sambungan   yang   rapat,   dapat dipergunakan sealant  karet  silicon yang netral  (neutral curring   silicon),   rubber   sealant   yang   bebas   amino maupun asam asetat.  Untuk  keperluan  tersebut,   juga dapat   dipergunakan   alat   pengunci   mekanis.   Apabila diperlukan   pengelasan,   dapat   dilakukan   dengan   las
titik, menggunakan mesin pengatur seperti  yang harus dipergunakan   untuk   pengelasan   pada   baja   lapis galvanis. Untuk menjaga permukaan atap agar tetap baik dalam penggunaannya, pada saat pemasangan harus dihindari lalu   lintas   yang  berlebihan  di   atas  panel,   khususnya untuk   jenis   panel   bergelombang   atau   yang   sudah dibentuk. Selain itu,  untuk mencegah terjadinya kerusakan pada
panel,   tidak   dianjurkan  menarik   lembaran   baja   lapis Zincalume di atas satu dengan yang lainnya, atau pada saat pelaksanaan pemasangan. Sisa-sisa material  yang terdapat   pada   permukaan   panel,   setiap   akhir pemasangan juga harus selalu dibersihkan. Karena, hal
tersebut menyebabkan rusaknya lapisan Zincalume dan akan mempercepat korosi. Apabila   penanganan-penangan   tersebut   dilakukan
secara   benar,   maka   penggunaan   bahan   baja   lapis galvalume  ini,   akan  memberikan   keuntungan   secara maksimal.   Selain   memiliki   perlindungan   ketahanan terhadap   cuaca   dan   korosi   yang   lebih   baik, penggunaannya   juga   lebih   awet   dan   mampu menghadirkan   kenyamanan   serta   keindahan   pada bangunan yang menggunakannya.

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